More recently, working in Alaska, she had seen the sequence again, this time in tightly banded concentration, for the “American” conodonts were from reefs around Ordovician volcanic islands with steeply plunging sides and the “Scandinavian” conodonts were from cold deeps nearby. Swerving to avoid a pothole, Anita said, “The plate-tectonics boys look at faunal lists and they go hysterical moving continents around. It’s not the paleontologists doing it. It’s mostly the geologists, misusing the paleontology. Think what geologists would make of the present east coast of the United States if they did not understand oceanography and the resulting distribution of modem biota . . Put yourself forty or fifty million years from now trying to reconstruct the east coast of the United States by looking at the remains in the rock. God help you, you would probably have Maine connected to Labrador, and Cape Hatteras to southern Florida. You’d conference room breda have a piece of Great Britain there, too, because you see the same fauna. Well, did you ever hear of ocean currents? Did you ever hear of the Gulf Stream? The Labrador Curre;it? The Gulf Stream brings fauna north. The Labrador Current brings fauna south. I think that a lot of the faunal anomalies you see in the ancient record, and which are explained by invoking plate tectonics, can be explained by ocean currents bringing fauna into places they shouldn’t be. In the early days of plate tectonics, a lot of us, including me, jumped on the bandwagon in order to explain the distribution anomalies we were seeing not only in the eastern Appalachians but in North America as a whole. When we better understood the paleoecologic controls on the animals some of us were working on, there was no reason to invoke plate tectonics.” The conference room amersfoort experience was cautionary, to say the least. It did not close her mind to plate tectonics, but it opened a line of suspicion and made her skeptical of the theory’s insistent universality. Her discomfort varies with distance from the mobile ocean floors. She likes to describe herself as a “protester.” The protest is not so much against the theory itself as against excesses of its application-up on the dry land.