By i871, oil was being pumped from the ground in nine countries, but ninety-one per cent of world production still came from Pennsylvania. When it was distilled into its components-paraffin, kerosene, and so forth-the gasoline, which in those days had no commercial value, was poured off into the ground. Petroleum is rare because it represents an extremely low percentage of the life that has lived on earth. In rock, the ratio of all organic carbon to petroleum carbon is eleven thousand to one. For petroleum carbon to turn into oil and be preserved, many co-working space breda conditions have to align, the most important of which is the thermal history of the source rock-the temperature through time as recorded by, among other things, the colors of conodonts. “The petroleum in this valley makes some of the best lubricating oil in the world,” Anita said. “It is a very low-specific-gravity oil and needs little refining, because it has been refined to near-perfection by natural earth processes. It has been at low temperatures-around a hundred degrees Celsius-for maybe two hundred million years. You can practically take it out of the ground and put it in your car.”
For a hundred and fifty miles, we had been traversing country that was free of glacial drift. Nowhere to be seen were the tills1 and erratics, the drumlins and kames left behind by Wisconsinan ice. Like a lifted hem, the line of maximum advance had been up in New York State somewhere, but now, in westernmost Pennsylvania, the glacial front had billowed south, and where Interstate So meets the co-working space amersfoort eightieth meridian we again crossed the terminal moraine. Sign of the ice was everywhere-the alien boulders in the woods, the directional scratches on the country rock, the unsorted gravels, cobbles, and sands. The signature of glaciation is as bold as John Hancock’s and as consistently recognizable wherever ice has moved across the solid earth. In the presence of the evidence, one has no difficulty imagining the arctic ambience, the high blue-white ice lobes thickening to the north, the white surface wide as the continent and swept by uninterrupted gales, the view in sunlight blinding, relieved only by isolated mountain summits, ice moving around them in the way that water slides past boulders in a stream. Welcome to Ohio. A sign in the median said “s TAY AwA KE! STAY ALIVE!” Ohio is not rich in roadcuts. It is a little less poor, however, than Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Nebraska, and before long we were running through burrowed marine shales and walls of lithified river sand.