It was on the mechanics of the seafloor that geology’s revolutionary inquiries were primarily focussed in the early days. Harry Hess, a mineralogist who taught at Princeton, was the skipper of an attack transport during the Second World War, and he carried troops to landings-against the furious defenses of Iwo Jima, for example, and through rockets off the beaches of Lingayen Gulf. Loud noises above the surface scarcely distracted him. He had brought along a new kind of instrument called a Fathometer, and, battle or no battle, he never turned it off. Its stylus was flexplek huren breda drawing pictures of the floor of the sea. Among the many things he discerned there were dead volcanoes, spread out around the Pacific bottom like Hershey’s Kisses on a tray. They had the arresting feature that their tops had been cut off, evidently the work of waves. Most of them were covered with thousands of feet of water. He did not know what to make of them. He named them guyots, for a nineteenth-century geologist at Princeton, and sailed on. The Second World War was a technological pifiata, and, with their new Fathometers and proton-precession magnetometers, oceanographers of the nineteen-fifties-most notably Bruce Heezen ap.d Marie Tharp at Columbia University-mapped the seafloor in such extraordinary detail that in a sense they were seeing it for the first time. (Today, the very best maps are classified, because they reveal the places where submarines hide.) What stood out even more prominently than the deep trenches were mountain ranges that rose some six thousand feet above the general seafloor and ran like seams through every ocean and all around the globe. They became known as rises, or flexplek huren amersfoort ridges-the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, the East Pacific Rise. They fell away gently from their central ridgelines, and the slopes extended outward hundreds of miles, to the edges of abyssal plains-the Hatteras Abyssal Plain, the Demerara Abyssal Plain, the Tasman Abyssal Plain. Right down the spines of most of the submarine cordilleras ran high axial valleys, grooves that marked the summit line.