From very deep in the mantle (and perhaps all the way from the core) the heat is thought to rise in a concentrated column, and for this reason is alternatively called a plume. Its surface features are not proof in themselves that they are the product of some plantstem phenomenon that is (or was) standing in the mantle far below. The chemistry of hot-spot lavas suggests that the rock is coming from below the asthenosphere, but there is no direct evidence of fixed hot spots in the mantle. They exist on inference alone. There is no way to sample the mantle. It can only be sensed-with vibrational waves, with viscosity computations, with tl1ermodynamic calculations of what minerals do at different temperatures and pressures. Sound waves move slowly in soft rock, and some modes of the sound can be stopped completely where the rock is molten. The speed and patterns of seismic waves tell the story of the rock. Seismology is not quite sophisticated enough to look through the earth and count hot spots, but it approaches that capability, and when it gets there hot spots should appear on the zakelijke energie screen like downspouts in a summer storm. If they don’t, that may be the end of the second-greatest story in the youthful explorations of geological geophysics. Hot spots seem to be active for roughly a hundred million years. Some of their effects on overriding plates last, of course, longer than they do. If they begin under continents, their initial manifestations at the surface are likely to be flood basalts. Hot-spot tracks have gone forth not only from the flood basalts of the Columbia River and the Serra Geral but in India from the flood basalts of the Deccan Plateau, in South Africa from the flood basalts of the Great Karroo, in East Africa from the flood basalts of the Ethiopian Plateau, in Russia from the flood basalts of the Siberian platform. Flood basalts are what the term implies-geologically fast, and voluminous in their declaration of the presence of a hot zakelijke energie vergelijken spot. In Oregon and Washington, in the middle Miocene, two hundred and fifty thousand cubic kilometres flowed out within three million years. Having achieved the surface in this form, the plume begins to make its track as the plate above slides by, just as Yellowstone, starting off from the flood basalts of Oregon and Washington, stretched out the pathway that has become the Snake River Plain.